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Thursday, 13 June 2013

Diary of William Smythers Esq.

The following are the recently re-discovered campaign dairies of the Hanoverian sympathizer -William Smythers, who worked to subvert the Jacobite rebels in the club's campaign that ran around 2002/3. Hope they are of interest and view these in conjunction with the diaries of Alan Beck Stewart - also published here. The two accounts are contemporary...

The papers cover the opening stages of the campaign- an excited Neil Oliver is believed to have said - "these papers reveal a new understanding on how the campaign was conducted". His team are searching for the remaining papers that would cover the later stages of the campaign..




3rd July 1745
Rumour is rife that the usurper Prince shall be trying to land in this great kingdom over the next few weeks. As such I have been assigned by his gracious majesty to board his majesty’s ship ‘HMS Neptune’ to record in a true and exact manner the progress of his forces against the Usurper.

Today we are at sea in the English Channel searching for any contraband vessels that might be aiding the usurper Prince or his allies the French. All to no avail and the master of the ship tells of his orders to sail west on the morrow to continue the search.

4th July 1745
The squadron consists of the ‘Neptune’, ‘Apollo’, ‘Venus’ and ‘Zeus’ all of which are rated as frigates, The crews are good and hearty in their eagerness to be a part in the capture of the Stuart Prince. No sightings of the enemy today.

5th July 1745
The weather gets worse as we move north and into the Irish Sea, spirits are high but it is increasingly difficult to see any great distance in the squawls that arise in this area of the ocean.

6th July 1745
The squadron passes into the Atlantic Ocean, I believe that the strategy is to belay the usurper Prince at the very point that he might intend to land. What a cruel trick on such a fellow, but a joyous celebration to us if we should succeed in such a cunning and cleaver plan.

7th July 1745
The weather eases as we sail into the shelter of the Western Isles, the area is covered in many small islands. From my position on the deck I can see many villages on the islands as we pass by, the folk here are by all accounts accommodating of the usurper but all seem to hard at work in their fishing vessels to make time for such ill conceived ideas of rebellion. Still no sightings of the enemy, I begin to believe that they may have given us the slip!

8th July 1745
The die is cast, the ‘Neptune’ determines to head towards the island of Mull, on approaching the main port it becomes clear that there is unusual activity. At first I think it is one of the Royal Navy’s squadrons re-supplying but on closer inspection we have stumbled upon the usurper Prince and his fleet.

The ship’s Captain quickly accessed the situation and determined a course of action – namely that two shore parties would be placed upon the island of Mull, both to consist of an officer, two marines and three ratings of good repute from this very vessel. The first party under Lieutenant Connor, an energetic and experienced man,  is to be dropped at the north point of the island, a second party under Ensign Muir, a young man from these very shores but loyal in the extreme to our glorious king. Muir is an officer in the Marine contingent and is to be dropped at the south point of the island. The two parties are to observe the goings-on on the island and report back to the ‘Neptune’ on its return.

For our part we are to sail south west and link-up with the rest of our squadron and return in haste to force battle on the rebel fleet. With the plan made we set sail, heading north to drop the first party, we then sailed south circumnavigating the island and dropping the second party at the southern most point of the island before we move away to rendez-vous with our sister ships.

9th July 1745
Over night the we had little success in finding our squadron but at first light we met with the ‘Venus’, later in the morning we were able to rendez-vous with the ‘Apollo’ and the ‘Zeus’. After a ‘Council of War’ the squadron headed north east to meet the rebel fleet. The ‘Zeus’ was sent further north to seek out the Campbelltown and 2nd Plymouth Squadrons that were patrolling there.

By three o’clock our squadron is approaching the island of Coll and as they do so a lookout on the ‘Venus’ notices three other vessels anchored to the north east. It is the rebel fleet and off to the east is a fourth vessel rapidly approaching, clearly a naval action is about to take place.

Diary of Alan Breck Stewart

These notes are part of the re-discovered campaign dairies of the Jacobite sympathiser -Alan Breck Stewart, (Not to be confused with Robert Louis Stevenson's hero of the same neame!) who worked to promote the Jacobite rebels in the club's campaign that ran around 2002/3. Hope they are of interest and view these in conjunction with the diaries of William Smythers Esq - also published here. The two accounts are contemporary...

3rd July 1745
With a glad heart and a bold spirit the adventure began setting sail from the Brittany ports. Prince Charles and his advisers, the Duke of Athol and Col. O’Sullivan aboard the privateer ‘Le Dolpine’. Accompanying the Prince was a squadron of three French Frigates – ‘Lyons’, ‘Monpellier’ and ‘Dunkirque’. Aboard the frigates are detachments from all of the Irish regiments in French service, under the command of the good colonel O’Sullivan and to be known as the ‘Irish Piquets’ additionally there is a detachment of the ‘Regiment Maupas’.

Weather in the English Channel was good, visibility was excellent and it was with great fortune that a sailor of the ‘Monpellier’ did spy the sails of  an English vessel just over the horizon, the fleet tacked east and out ran what was most likely a Royal Navy squadron.

4th July 1745
The fleet passed without event into the Irish Sea, many of the common men in the hold were feeling decidedly sea-sick and by the end of the day the smell from below decks was enough to make even the strongest man cry.

5th July 1745
The weather gets worse as we move north towards home. There is constant concern about being discovered by the Hanoverians and the lookouts spend many long hours in the masts spying the horizon for the enemy. The stench from the holds is worse – if that is at all possible, the men are now being allowed onto the deck for an hour at a time to keep up their spirits.

6th July 1745
The fleet passes into the Atlantic Ocean and the seas get rougher, we skirt around the coast of Ireland without detection. The strain of this journey is starting to effect all on board for at any moment we may be discovered and attacked by the Hanoverian fleet. The Prince, however, is in good spirits as he talks at length of his plans for the future of his new kingdom.

7th July 1745
The weather eases as we sail into the shelter of the Western Isles, at a ‘Council of War’ the Prince elects that we should land at the Island of Mull, O’Sullivan had suggested the mainland Port of Oban but with the Duke of Athol supporting the Prince’s view the decision is made.

8th July 1745
The die is cast, mid morning the fleet finds safe harbour at Mull, the Prince and his officers disembark and immediately head to the house of the local clan leader, Sir Hector MacLaren. The chieftain welcomes the Prince cordially and by manner of his enthusiasm and his good spirit the Prince did gain word from MacLaren of his support for the Princes cause.

By way of good will the chieftain is promised a role in the future affairs of the government of Scotland and the Prince pays MacLaren a bounty of gold to help in the recruiting of men to his cause.

The meeting is brought to a swift close when work is brought to the Prince and his officers of a lone Royal Naval frigate standing off the island. The command group hastily moved back to the port accompanied by Sir Hector. After a period of about one hour the Hanoverian vessel now spied as ‘HMS Nepture’ hove-to and sailed north around the headland.

A council of war was called and it was determined that overnight there should be put into place a daring and cunning plan. Sir Hector organised the local fishing vessels to transport the members of the French troops from Mull to the port of Oban – a clan homeland for the Stewarts – where the prince expected a warm welcome and where I, this  humble diarist, would meet my kinsmen for the first time in 3 years. The Artillery and the arms supplied by the King of France would be transported to Oban by ‘Le Dolphine’ along with the Prince and his officers.

The Duke of Athol  then did make his cunning plan, the French frigates would sail on the morning first to Coll and then onwards north to navigate around the north of Scotland to return to the Brittany ports. On these vessels the captain of the ‘Lyons’ shall carry two letters. The first, a rouse, should be surrendered in a secretive manner to the Hanoverians if the vessels should be captured or destroyed, it details false plans of invasion in East Anglia and Ireland. The second, true letter, requests additional troops from the French King and announces our daring landing.

9th July 1745
Over night the French troops are transported from Mull across the waters to Oban, helped by the good weather the task goes well. By daylight ‘Le Dolphine’ has landed her cargo of Artillery and Arms at the port, the French troops are nearly all landed and the Prince makes a stirring speech on the dockside.

At dawn the French squadron sets sail from Mull heading as planned to Coll, the journey passes uneventfully and they anchor off the coast of Coll to await ‘Le Dolphine’ for the journey north. A shore party lands to tell the local population the news of the arrival of the Prince in Scotland and there is much joy.

Mid afternoon ‘Le Dolphine’ sets sail from Oban to rendez-vous with the rest of the fleet, by three o’clock the vessel is approaching Coll and as it does so it notices three other vessels rapidly approaching from the south west. It is the ‘Neptune’ and two of her sister ships ‘HMS Apollo’ and ‘HMS Venus’ and a mighty battle did commence.

Wednesday, 12 June 2013

Diary of William Smythers Esq. - ‘The Great Sea Battle’

9th July 1745
After what seemed like an age, where the hours turned into weeks, we were able to close in on our targets. Capt. Hardy, the Squadron Commander, was stationed in the very vessel I was travelling in – H.M.S. Neptune. This allowed me to have a glorious insight into how the good Captain’s orders were put into action.

Hardy was concerned to ensure that the rebel vessels were not unduly alerted to our presence at an early stage in the battle, thus ensuring our complete surprise of their mutinous crews.

To this end we made good time, however, from the starboard horizon we did spot the sails of a single vessel, an armed merchantman or pirate, which with time we saw flew the French and Jacobite colours.

Soon there was great activity on the three French Frigates which as we approached we saw were at anchor, their crews were scrambling in the utmost disorder to raise their anchors and set sails.

As ranges closed we exchanged our first shots, and I must say that I have not heard such a thunderous roar of guns in my life, it would certainly put fear into the hearts of the rebellious crews at the receiving end of such fire. With the squadron running in line the first of the French vessels was able to break away from it’s moorings and as it sailed forth laid a terrible cannonade into the bow of the ‘Apollo’, which was leading the Royal Navy line. So powerful the attack that the vessel noticeably slowed in the water.

The other two French vessels were then able to slip their moorings and both sailed past the Apollo and turned starboard – as these naval fellows say – unleashing fire on the slowing vessel.

At this stage Captain Hardy issued the order for all vessels to take their own quarter, as the rebel vessels attempted to break through the Royal Naval line the Apollo was able to lash it’s self to the French Frigate ‘Montpellier’ and a frightful slaughter did follow and Capt. Vallance was able to claim the vessel as a prize.

Two other French vessels – ‘Dunkirque’ and ‘Lyons’ did manage to break through after taking some sever damage from our guns. The French Privateer – ‘Le Dolphine’ also attempted to break through the lines but was stopped by mighty fire from ‘H.M.S. Venus’ under the command of Capt. Sears.

10th July 1745
Captain Hardy spends the rest of the night re-organising his force and in the morning the damaged ‘Apollo’ and the prize ships ‘Montpellier’ and ‘Le Dolphine’ were dispatched to Campbelltown for repair and safety.

On interrogating his prisoners who were of two sorts – Regular French Officers who were given the appropriate Honours of War, the others were Scottish ‘Gentlemen’ taken from the Privateer, who will be handed over to the authorities in Campbelltown.

From the questioning and a brief search of the captured vessels an letter from the so called ‘Prince’ Charles Edward Stuart was found requesting French forces to be sent to East Anglia. What is also clear is that the pretender was landed on the Island of Mull, on the 8th July but has since moved to the Mainland with an escort of Highlanders.
Lord Lovatt’s Regiment. – 150 men, Tried

Diary of Alan Breck Stewart - ‘The Great Sea Battle’

9th July 1745
After what seemed like an age, where the hours turned into weeks, the Royal Navy vessels were able to close in on our anchored frigates. The Chevallier de Worrall, the Squadron Commander, was stationed on ‘Lyons’, and was waiting for the arrival of the Privateer ‘Le Dolphine’ when the English attacked.

At this very time our lookouts did notice on the starboard horizon the sails of  ‘Le Dolphine’, which was able to signal a warning of the approaching Royal Nay vessels.

Soon there was great activity on the three French Frigates as their crews were scrambling in the utmost haste to raise their anchors and set sails. The British vessels formed line as they approached and  the valiant Chevallier realised that with speed he may be able to evade the trap.

As ranges closed we exchanged our first shots, and I must say that I have not heard such a thunderous roar of guns in my life, it would certainly put fear into the hearts of the enemy crews at the receiving end of such fire. With the Royal Navy squadron running in line the ‘Lyons’ was able to break away from it’s moorings and as it sailed forth laid a terrible cannonade into the bow of the ‘Apollo’, which was leading the Royal Navy line. So powerful was the attack that the vessel noticeably slowed in the water.

Then the ‘Montpellier’ and the ‘Dunkirque’ were then able to slip their moorings and both sailed past the Apollo and turned starboard – as these naval fellows say – unleashing fire on the slowing vessel.

At this stage the Chevallier issued the order for all vessels to take their own quarter, as the our vessels attempted to break through the Royal Naval line the Apollo was able to lash it’s self to the French Frigate ‘Montpellier’ and a frightful slaughter did follow and Capt. Nuehomme was able to resist the force on numbers that overwhelmed his command.

Our other vessels – ‘Dunkirque’ and ‘Lyons’ did manage to break through after taking some damage from their guns. The Privateer – ‘Le Dolphine’ also attempted to break through the lines but was stopped by mighty fire from ‘H.M.S. Venus’ under the command and was forced to surrender.

10th July 1745
The Chevallier de Worral leads his two remaining vessels south in an attempt to reach France and deliver the letter requesting reinforcements to the French King. Meanwhile the fake letter has been delivered to the Royal Navy.

In Oban today there is heartening news, the raising of the first Regiment of Foot – that of Ardsheil Stuart. 150 men parade in the streets and pledge their allegiance to the Prince. Later comes in news from Loch Lomond and Ft. William that Glengyle MacGreggor and Donald of Lochiel Cameron are also raising Regiments for the Prince. The Camerons having the front to muster their men under the guns of Fort William its-self, the defenders powerless to do anything to stop this gathering.

Back on Mull, word is heard that a group of Royal Naval ratings and marines were captured by local clansmen in and around the town of Tobermoray. The unfortunates under the command of an Irishman by the name of Connor have been imprisoned in the Town Hall. The purpose of their presence on the island is not yet known.

Tuesday, 11 June 2013

Diary of William Smythers Esq. - ‘The Hunt Begins’

11th  July 1745
Today is surely that day that one of the greatest adventures I shall ever embark upon began. After the terrible slaughter of the recent sea battle with the French frigates I gave by great cunning and cleverness managed to get myself transferred onto the prizeship ‘Le Dolphine’. The aim of it’s temporary crew is to sail her south to Campbelltown to the naval port there and claim her as a prize for the whole crew.

13th July 1745
I must declare that this vessel is the most notoriously and scandalously cramped and ill willed ship I have ever had the misfortune to sail in. I most admit to being extremely sea sick over the last 24 hours, an ill feeling made worse by the smell of garlic, raw meat and ill living provided by the previous crew.

At last by the end of the day we arrived in Campbelltown and was able to dis-embark this devilish boat.

14th July 1745
I hear that there are plans to send a force to Oban to intercept the Prince, I determine to meet that force outside Oban. I set about arranging transport to Oban and hire a brace of strong fellows to accompany me to that rebellious hole.

17th July 1745
I arrive at Oban and wait on the Loch Lomond road with my companions Archie Cunningham and John Campbell. Loudon’s force of loyal highlanders arrives at about 4 o’clock after the noon.

I might add that they arrived not a moment too soon, as we did spy a large number of swarthy looking fellows loitering in the woods. Young Archie took it upon himself to trespass into the woods to search out the conduct of these fellows and did return some time later with tales so disturbing that I was about to consider a rearguard action and retire back too Campbelltown, however the gallant Loudon arrived  not long after.

18th July 1745
Loudon dispatched out patrols to the near reaches of the area to ascertain the location of the Prince, however, it soon became clear that the man had slipped away quickly, heading North.

19th July 1745
I joined a patrol from Oban that headed north to wards Ft. William. The highland soldiers that we travelled with seemed to be fine strong fellows. Their nature was somewhat rough and unfamiliar to a gentlemen of my standing.

It was noticeable that the further north we travelled away from the security of the town of Oban then more restless those men became, again I was fortunate to be accompanied by my men John & young Archie. Some 5 miles short of Fort William the patrol met a picquet from the Ft William Garrison.

I bade farewell to the highland soldiers and I, John & Archie returned to Fort William on the change of guard.  We are closely followed into the fort by a regiment of Dragoons who have just arrived as re-enforcements.

20th July 1745
It seems we made camp here just in time yesterday, for during the evening there was a great disturbance in the town. It seems word of the prince is common amongst the lower classes of this society and they feel that they have an allegiance to him rather than the true king.

When travelling the area there are many highland gangs roaming the area, it appears they are waiting – for what we do not know.

21st  July 1745
Today Hamilton’s Dragoons pass through Fort William on route to Ft. Augustus. It is rumoured that  the situation there is more tense than even here, though I find that hard to believe. At times we can hear the highlanders singing songs that no true gentleman should repeat in his diary – treasonous, treacherous songs with much course language.

I determine to be brave and follow the Dragoons north to Fort Augustus, a truly dull, sullen place that surprises me much.

23rd  July 1745
Now fully settled at Fort Augustus, the conditions here are too crowded for healthy living. However I do realise that we are at the very frontier of civilisation. Today men of the 57th were set-upon by a horde of highland brigands and forced to retire to the safety of the fort.

A similar situation befell a Dragoon patrol that was also set-up and after some severe scrapping was again forced to return to this camp. The opinion here is that the Highlander is unable or unwilling to attack such a strong emplacement, so at least I can sleep better at night.


21st  July 1745
Word arrives from Fort William that general Cope is expected to arrive their with re-enforcements at any hour. This makes our hearts stronger, soon we will be strong enough to take the fight to these brigands – if they have the courage not to run away from us.

28th  July 1745
A patrol of Dragoons reaches us from Fort William, Cope has arrived and he will proceed here as soon as is convenient.

29th  July 1745
Our salvation has arrived, General Cope and a vast array of soldiers march into the fort. I have not had the pleasure to meet the man before so I made great haste to introduce myself to him.  I must say that he is not the image of the man I had expected. Forthright and bold were expected  but his physical presence makes him seem larger  in person than his reputation would usually tell. His men seem to adore him but he has a ruthless streak and will punish any man who fails him however that means that I am glad he is a leader on our side of this conflict.

30th  July 1745
Today there was a real battle at ‘Torr Dhuin’ and I saw the injured return from the place some 3 miles down the road. It seems they were set upon by armed highlanders and a brisk firefight ensued. When pressed the brigands melted away into the moors.

Worryingly our messenger to Edinburgh returns with news of French and Spanish troops at Stirling, however, general cope would have nothing of it and worzelled the idea that there were any ‘damn foreign troops’ in Scotland other than the Scots themselves.

Diary of Alan Breck Stewart - ‘The Great Adventure Begins’

9th July 1745
The Prince and his advisors are aware of the need or great speed and guile if this adventure is to lead to success rather than abject failure. We almost immediately move out of Oban escorted as we are by Sir Hector McLaren and his men alongside the French and Irish troops.

The Prince has arranged a number of meetings with Clan chieftains over the next few days, mostly with those that lead families that have expressed some reluctance to follow our cause.

10th July 1745
We stop at the government military camp at Fort William to spy on the comings and goings there. All seems calm, no-one is aware of our near presence, however , it is clear from talking to our local supporters that the fort it’s self is too strong to take without artillery to reduce the walls.

The Prince was clearly disappointed, saying “ Give me a pick and a strong man and we can breakdown the walls ourselves by nightfall”. There was much hussaring to this notion amongst the gentlemen with the party but no-one volunteered to help.

11th July 1745
We rested a day in the pleasant surroundings in the country side around fort William, at day break it was clear that the Prince had not found his pick, nor the strong man as the walls were still complete around the fort. The professional soldiers such as O’Sullivan were clearly agitated at the prince’s notion of urgency.

We prepared to move to Fort Augustus overnight.

12th July 1745
We arrived at Ft. Augustus at daybreak, settling some two miles from the fort and making contact with our local supporters here. The Prince met with Roderick og Chisholm and clinched their support for the coming campaign. Chisholm was able to give much good information about the soldiers activities and in particular note that their spirits were low.

Again the Prince felt it necessary to rest – “A gentlemen cannot miss his sleep and not recover his constitution’”. In the event he Prince slept most of the day, rising on the 13th and spending much time preparing a speech that he gave to the townsfolk about hid righteous place at the head of the Scottish nation.

16th July 1745
We’re on the road again, arriving at Lochalsh in the evening, we’re then moving tomorrow to Straith Farrar. We have noticed an increase in the number of reports coming in regarding patrolling activity by the Hanoverian troops. We determine that they must be aware that we have landed.

Today we stopped at a roadside Inn, run by Maggie Kirk, she was able to feed and vitel the party well. Many of the fellows accompanying us are hungry, it is hard for a group of some 400 men to arrive at a location and demand food from the people. To date we have been received with grace, if not favour, however, we need to ensure that we put correct supplies in place or we shall loose the very men that follow us to hunger.

20th July 1745
This morning there were meetings with Roderick McNeil and William McKenzie who together indicated that they would in no way ever support the cause. Roderick McNeil disgraced himself and his clan by his words – “In the name of God almighty and the people you say you love, go home!”

It was all that could be done to stop the Prince’s champion, Alistair McBean, from demanding a retraction from McNeil.
23rd July 1745
Fully rested and in the prime of his health, the Prince travelled from Straith Farrar to Inverness, arriving in the evening. The decision has been made that no night marches should be made as it makes the whole party irritable and melancholy.

At Inverness the Prince meets with Grant of Glen moriston, outwith the city walls. Grant pledged his support but local rumour has it that the majority of the clan will not support the Prince for their Chief is unpopular with all.

Reports have it that the Grants had, however, repelled a large party of Dragoons from entering the town. They did not want the dishonour of allowing the prince to be taken in their homelands.

25th July 1745
Yesterday we travel to Grantown and then onto Ballater today, arriving in the evening once again. Our aim is to reach Dundee by tomorrow night. In this the Prince is remarkably eager and drives forward like I have not seen him do since arriving in Scotland. Maybe the promise of a soft bed and good food in Dundee is what appeals.

26th July 1745
We meet with Lord George Murray, who declares for the Prince, Murray and Ogilvy have each raised fine regiments in the town. I have not met either man before – Murray is from a fine Jacobite family, although his elder brother is now with the Hanovarians. He is of medium build, in his forties and a cool and calculating man, Ogilvy is much more genial, possiblely less worldly wise and has great enthusiasm. Good men both.

Murray and O’Sullivan seem to clash almost at once, Murray expecting to have the honour of the Prince’s right hand seat at supper, an honour until now reserved for the Irishman.

We get word over supper that General Cope has marched a large force of men north out of Edinburgh and Glasgow . Our spy tells us that Edinburgh is now empty!

28th July 1745
We arrive in Stirling, the gateway to the Highlands and the place is deserted of Hanovarians. The prince rejoices and plans a great speech to the townsfolk tomorrow.

29th July 1745
The Prince is taken ill overnight with a dose of the vapours, he determines that we should rest here before we journey to Edinburgh. He does not want the gentlemen of his capital to think that he is a of a poor constitution.

30th July 1745
Still we wait. Each day our position becomes more difficult, finally Lord Murray convinces the price to march overnight to Edinburgh.

31st July 1745
We are at the gates of Edinburgh but we are unable to enter as they are locked closed. Murray demands the gates to be opened and after a long delay the course reply is received from the City’s Trained Bands.

The gates and walls are manned by uniformed troops and it appears that an attack would not work – clearly not possible with only 600 men. We retire for the night to plat and scheme.

1st August 1745
Today is market day in the city and we waylay a number of market folk and their wagons on the way to the city. These carts are then allowed to continue their journey to the gates with our fellows leading the horses.

However, again we are foiled as the guards will not allow our carts in the city as they recognise our voices as that of highland folk. In exasperation O’Sullivn leads a party of 25 Irish Picquets and force the gate open as the next caravan of carts arrives. The City Guards melt away and the gatehouse is ours, at 11o’clock we enter the city of Edinburgh as liberators.

On our arrival we are greeted by Lord Elcho who parades his fine troop of horsemen. The McLarens, French and Irish troops with us billet them selves in the city and the Prince and his party travel on to Holyrood House where he takes up residence.

2nd August 1745
The Prince raises his standard at Hollyrood House and declarees that he is the rightful heir to the Scottish throne and that his father James will soon be travelling here for coronation.

Meanwhile the city is patrolled by Irish and French regulars to keep order whilst the McLarens ensure that he many public houses in the city are still functioning.

4th August 1745
Troops from Perth and Dundee start to arrive in the city in support of the King, troops also arrive from the Highlands and in all we have a small army of some 2000 men in the matter of a few days.

On this day also we learn of the capture of Colonel Loudon who commands a Hanovarian Highland regiment. With him are captured a number of his men – about 150 in all.

As gentlemen we offer him the best of our facilities and notify the world that we will offer Parole on him if he pledges not to raise his sword against us a gain. His men, meanwhile, reside in the city goal.

7th August 1745
Still more men arrive by the day, our numbers are upto 3000 or more, it is hard to tell as they are distributed about the city in may areas. We must be careful that the men do not become too accustomed to life in the city where ale and whiskey are easily found.

Sunday, 9 June 2013

Diary of William Smythers Esq. - ‘The First Battle’

8th August 1745
It is my great fortune to encounter General Cope at about 8:30 in the morning. He invited me to follow him and his troops on an expedition into the clan lands of the Chisolms just outside of the fort.

Within the hour a large force of troops marched through the local village rounding up all the menfolk, where menfolk were not to be found the housed were put to the fire as they were likely off with the Prince.

Of the menfolk taken those that were known to have a good reputation were released the others were imprisoned at the Fort with a view to be deported.  As news of such harsh treatment got abroad then bands of clansmen made forays into the town and some serious but low scale fighting took place.

By nightfall the town was clear of all people, the menfolk in prison, the women and children fled. General Cope was extremely happy with the days work, I must admit that it did leave a rancid taste in my mouth, but this is war.

9th August 1745
Another early start and we journey to Inverness  where we hear disturbing news. It appears that the Earl of Cromerty is ralling forces to the east of here.

Many women and children of the Chisholm clan are encountered on the way, Cope and his men pay them little eheed and march on to Inverness where he and his men do terrible slaughter of cattle and men and they torched the dwellings of any family whose men folk were not to be found.

In the evening we hear more news of the rebels and their puny little army, it is in Elgin and has the audacity to off us battle, we will not disappoint.

10th August 1745
We rise at dawn and ride on to Elgin, which is strangely deserted, arriving at mid-day to see a strange sight, the army of the Prince in line of battle.

The Battle of Elgin
Below is a rough sketch of the initial deployments of the armies,



The two government regiments of foot deployed in line one behind the other with the protection of the stream to their front, on their left flank the two regiments of dragoons deployed, one on the road in column , the second in line between their foot and the Town of Elgin. In the town it’s self was the loyalist Grants lead by the Laid himself. Cope ordered the dragoons to ride up the coast road so as to get behind the Jacobite flank as soon as was possible, on the way they picked-up the Grants as support. Meanwhile the Earl of Cromerty lined his foot in one line of battle and had the advance up to the summit of the hill to their west, giving them command of the battlefield.

At this stage all seemed to be going well for the Earl, his line moved into place quickly and Cope’s dragoons seemed to b having some difficulty in advancing along the road, however they eventually reached their desired position. At this very stage the Master of Lovatt’s Regiment arrived on the field, on the flank of the dragoons who had thought that they had out flanked the Earl’s lines.

Hamilton’s Dragoons drew up in line of battle and manoeuvred to charge the advancing Lovatts, however they were not able to do this before the highlanders were able to form their own line of battle and when the dragoons finally charged the highlanders counterchanged. In the resulting melee, the dragoons took a surprisingly high number of casualties and were repelled.
 At this stage there appeared a second Lovatt regiment, this time that of the Lord of Lovatt who lead a loyalist force onto the field, to the rear of the Jacobite Lovatt regiment, see the diagram below….


Dismayed at the poor showing of the dragoons, Cope threw them into battle again, this time supported by the Laird of Grants’ regiment, as these highlanders moved forward all order seemed to degenerate into internal fighting and the regiment split, some 130 men going over to join the Master of Lovatt as allies, the balance of the regiment rallying back to reorganise. This left Hamilton’s dragoons to fight on alone and again their showing was poor, being pushed back again and forced to disengage.

Meanwhile the other Jacobite regiments played a waiting game on the highest hill on the battlefield, no doubt watching the slow deliberate deployment of the redcoat lines towards them from their vantage point.

Finally late in the afternoon the combined attacks of Hamilton’s dragoons and a ferocious charge by the Laird of Grant’s regiment into the Joacobite Lovatts and Grants broke the deadlock and smashed the Jacobite regiment. Much slaughter took place on the battlefield when the loyalist Grants caught up with the former confederates and the Lovatts, word has it that about 300 men were killed, wounded or captured within some 5 minutes.

With the Jacobites rear and right flank threatened, the pace of the battle seemed to escalate quickly. Gardiner’s Dragoons were soon able to bring a charge to bare on the right flank of the main Jacobite battle line. Here the Glenmoriston Grants were initially pushed back but were able to rally to spend some time firing volley after volley into the dragoons as they re-organised themselves. However the die was cast, the Dragoons charged home again and after a prolonged fight were able to put the Grants to flight and pursue with some heavy casualties being inflicted.

With the right of his line of battle in flight Cromerty ordered his little army off the table, they exited without undue problems and travelled south to Grantown.

Offical Rolls – After Battle of Elgin – 11th August 1745


Known Casualties –

Colonel Gardiner – took a rather nasty blow from an axe to his right foot during the pursuit of the Glenmoriston Grants. Word has it that it was from the axe of Glenmoriston’s own tackman who was protecting the body of his fallen master.

Laird of Grant – seriously wounded, was found after the pursuit of the rebel Lovatts and Grants. As yet he has been unable to give details of the circumstances of his wounding – a pistol ball to his right side.

Gardiner’s Dragoons – 250 men reporting for duty, 50 killed, wounded and missing
Hamilton’s Dragoons - 250 men reporting for duty, 50 killed, wounded and missing

Current force under General Cope is as follows…

General Cope – Leader Leadership Value = 8

Guise’s 6th  Regt. – 600 men, Untried
Lascelle’s  Regt. – 600 men, Untried
Detachment 57th Regt. – 150 men, Untried

Gardiner’s  Dragoons. – 250 men, Tried
Hamilton’s  Dragoons. – 250 men, Tried

Laird of Grant’s Regiment. – 150 men, Tried

Diary of Alan Breck Stewart - ‘The First Battle’

8th August 1745
We are greatly heartened by the arrival of so many stout supporters for the prince’s cause. Our numbers continue to swell with new groups of clansman arriving in Edinburgh by the hour.

It is my great fortune to encounter his Majesty the Prince at about 8:30 in the morning – it is exceptional that the Prince is on the move at this early hour. However he bade me to complete a task for him, to which I was only too pleased to agree. Should I have known the adventure that it would lead me into at the time I may well have thought twice.

None the less I was tasked to meat the Earl of Cromerty and lead him and his party to the city of Edinburgh by the shortest route, the Earl being from the Islands was unsure of the exact route. I set off immediately with two good horses and a pair of splendid companions – Donald McIntyre and Hamish Grant – men who were familiar with the roads to Inverness where I had been told to meet the Earl.

By night fall we were at Stirling, we fed and watered the horses and then moved on in failing light to the town of Perth, we reached there after the midnight hour and took shelter for the night in a hayloft.

9th August 1745
Another early start and we journey to Blair Athol where we hear disturbing news. It appears that General Cope has moved out of ft. Augustus with his troops and has laid waste to the local village. Many women and children of the Chisholm clan having moved this way for shelter. Cope and his men have done terrible slaughter of cattle and men and they have torched the dwellings of any family whose men folk were not to be found as they determined they would be off a fighting for the Prince.

Furthermore Cope has moved on towards Inverness to press the matter with the clansmen known to be in the area. With heavy hearts we determine we must continue our journey until we know for sure that we would not be able to meet the Earl. We ride on to Kinguisse and find more distressed folk and hear that the Earl of Cromerty has rallied the local forces at Elgin.

Cromerty has with him the Roderick og Chisholm and Glenbucket Gordon regiments and he is expecting to be joined by the Glenmoriston Grants overnight and the Master of Lovatt’s Regiment in the Morning.

My-self and my companions determine to reach the Earl tomorrow, it is a long ride and likely to take all day, so we rest and feed well.

10th August 1745
We rise at dawn and ride on to Grantown, which is strangely deserted, we press on to Elgin arriving at mid-day to see a wondrous sight, the army of the Prince in line of battle awaiting orders to attack the redcoats who were drawing-up their final positions.

The Battle of Elgin
Below is a rough sketch of the initial deployments of the armies,


The two government regiments of foot deployed in line one behind the other with the protection of the stream to their front, on their left flank the two regiments of dragoons deployed, one on the road in column , the second in line between their foot and the Town of Elgin. In the town it’s self was the loyalist Grants lead by the Laid himself. Cope ordered the dragoons to ride up the coast road so as to get behind the Jacobite flank as soon as was possible, on the way they picked-up the Grants as support. Meanwhile the Earl of Cromerty lined his foot in one line of battle and had the advance up to the summit of the hill to their west, giving them command of the battlefield.

At this stage all seemed to be going well for the Earl, his line moved into place quickly and Cope’s dragoons seemed to b having some difficulty in advancing along the road, however they eventually reached their desired position. At this very stage the Master of Lovatt’s Regiment arrived on the field, on the flank of the dragoons who had thought that they had out flanked the Earl’s lines.

Hamilton’s Dragoons drew up in line of battle and maneuvered to charge the advancing Lovatts, however they were not able to do this before the highlanders were able to form their own line of battle and when the dragoons finally charged the highlanders counter changed. In the resulting melee, the dragoons took a surprisingly high number of casualties and were repelled.
 At this stage there appeared a second Lovatt regiment, this time that of the Lord of Lovatt who lead a loyalist force onto the field, to the rear of the Jacobite Lovatt regiment, see the diagram below….



Dismayed at the poor showing of the dragoons, Cope threw them into battle again, this time supported by the Laird of Grants’ regiment, as these highlanders moved forward all order seemed to degenerate into internal fighting and the regiment split, some 1230 men going over to join the Master of Lovatt as allies, the balance of the regiment rallying back to reorganise. This left Hamilton’s dragoons to fight on alone and again their showing was poor, being pushed back again and forced to disengage.

Meanwhile the other Jacobite regiments played a waiting game on the highest hill on the battlefield, no doubt watching the slow deliberate deployment of the redcoat lines towards them from their vantage point.

Finally late in the afternoon the combined attacks of Hamilton’s dragoons and a ferocious charge by the Laird of Grant’s regiment into the Joacobite Lovatts and Grants broke the deadlock and smashed the Jacobite regiment. Much slaughter took place on the battlefield when the loyalist Grants caught up with the former confederates and the Lovatts, word has it that about 300 men were killed, wounded or captured within some 5 minutes.

With the Jacobite's rear and right flank threatened, the pace of the battle seemed to escalate quickly. Gardiner’s Dragoons were soon able to bring a charge to bare on the right flank of the main Jacobite battle line. Here the Glenmoriston Grants were initially pushed back but were able to rally to spend some time firing volley after volley into the dragoons as they re-organised themselves. However the die was cast, the Dragoons charged home again and after a prolonged fight were able to put the Grants to flight and pursue with some heavy casualties being inflicted.

With the right of his line of battle in flight Cromerty ordered his little army off the table, they exited without undue problems and traveled south to Grantown.


Official Rolls – After Battle of Elgin – 11th August 1745

Known Casualties –

Leader Glenmoriston Grant – last seen wounded and fighting with claymore in hand believed to be ridden down by two dragoons as his regiment began to flee.

Glenmoriston Grant Regiment – 150 men reporting for duty, 300 killed, wounded and missing
Laird of Lovatt’s Regiment – 150 men reporting for duty, 150 killed, wounded and missing

Current force under the Earl of Cromerty is as follows…

Earl of Cromerty – Leader Leadership Value = 7

Glenbucket Gordon Regt. – 300 men, Tried
Roderick Og Chisholm Regt. – 300 men, Tried
Lovatts & Grants – 300 men, Tried, combined regiment under the Master of Lovatt.

Saturday, 8 June 2013

Hanoverian Government Papers - 14th August 1745

Campaign Events

Word reaches Argyle that the Prince has raised his standard in Edinburgh on the 3rd August 1745, Argyle is in Glasgow on his way to Dumfries, he postpones his trip to Dumfries as he prefers to remain in Glasgow commanding the Royal Scots based there. However after prompting from his superiors he continues with his task and has collected the troops stationed at Dumfries and moved to Campbelltown to await the arrival of General Wade, who is at sea in the Irish sea region and expected to arrive at Campbell town in the next few days.

It is not until the 6th August that word reaches Cope in Ft Augustus of the calamitous events further south. Cope grasps the bull by the horns and led out his command to visit punitive justice against the rebels, torching the village of Ft. Augustus and rousting the town of Inverness before clashing with an ad hoc force put together by the Earl of Cromerty at Elgin.

Cope quickly earns the name ‘Butcher’ Cope – summarily hanging a number of clansmen in both Ft Augustus and Inverness, after the Battle of Elgin his Dragoons run amok amongst the fleeing Grants and Lovatts killing dozens as they try to surrender.

To the south of Cope, in Fort William, the garrison came under sustained fire form several hundred clansmen on the night of the 9th Aug. Casualties were light but the garrison was disconcerted without the presence of a recognised leader when attacked.

George II is awaiting a transport that which dispatched from Liverpool to collect him, the Dutch leader Nassau and 1200 Dutch troops, he will be displeased if he has to wait much longer.

After the Battle of Elgin Cope and his force do not pursue Cromerty, rather they move west passing back through Inverness, picking up Forbes and a detachment of the 57th Foot  before heading north to Straith Farrar, clanlands of the MacKenzies, here he rounds up all men between the ages of 15 and 65 years and puts them in the goal, burning the houses of all who resist.

French Support 

Currently the level of French Support for the Jacobites is 4 (Four) out of 5 (Five), it remains unchanged from previous levels. (News of the victory at Elgin has not yet reached France).

Intelligence

The following information has been compiled over the past few days activity and is summarised as below.

It is estimated that the Earl of Cromerty has about 1000 men with him after the Battle of Elgin.

It is known that there are several hundred rebels travelling down the east coast road through Dundee and Perth heading for Edinburgh. Their numbers are too large for the garrison there to interdict effectively.

In the Western Isle it is estimated that there are about 2000 rebels massing, mostly McDonalds.

It is believed that the Prince has approximately 5000 men in Edinburgh, including French, Spanish and Irish Regulars.

Cope learns that the Prince was staying in Straith Farrar between the 16th & 23rd July with a force of some 300 French Regulars.

French action in Flanders does not appear to have been affected by the rebel action in Scotland. There is a possibility of releasing troops from Flanders to be shipped to Britain in the coming weeks, to do this there will be a need to replace British troops with German mercenaries at a heavy cost to the King’s purse.

Friday, 7 June 2013

The Jacobite Papers - 14th August 1745

Current Situation
The Earl of Cromerty was defeated by Cope at Elgin on the 10th August, he retires to Grantown overnight and pulls back further to Ballater on the 11th. There he is joined on the 14th August by a force lead by the Duke of Athol and Lord Strathalan. This force has orders issued directly by the Prince to pursue and destroy Cope before he can burn the highlands to the ground. It is anticipated that Athol will take command of this whole force.

In the north the McDonalds under Sir Alexander McDonald, have finally been able to move onto the mainland, helped by poor weather in the Isles, he is now at Gairlock with McLeods and McKinnons.

In Edinburgh the Prince continues to rally his forces and to recruit locally.

Recruiting & Spies etc
You have no firm intelligence on Cope’s current location other than he moved north from Inverness, he is likely to try and sack other clan homelands. Reports from Fort Augustus indicate that it will not be possible to recruit any men from the Chisholm clan from that area for several months due to the ravages laid upon the area.

The noises coming from the French are promising, there is word that they will make more regulars available to you in the next few weeks, these are likely to be Irish and Scots regiments in French service, foot and horse, some 1000 men.

Colonel Loudon has now been paroled and he has given his word not to raise his sword against the Prince or his forces in Britain

Thursday, 6 June 2013

Hanoverian Government Papers - 1st September 1745

Current Situation

Over the past days a large number of survivors of the defeat at Rannoch have straggled into various lowland towns and cities. To a man all are badly traumatized and not capable of fighting.

Gardiner’s Dragoons managed to retire to Perth, arriving on the 26th August and joining there with detachments of Foot. Together the small force determines to hold out until relived or until their position becomes untenable.

Of Cope and his army little is known, it is believed that they will be offered parole but no offers for exchange have yet been received.

Large numbers of reinforcements  have landed – not before time, in Newcastle General Huske has landed with 6 battalions, 3 English  and 3 Dutch-Swiss. In London the King has landed with the rest of the Dutch Brigade – another 3150 foot.

Additionally a second ‘lift’ of reinforcements is assembling in the Netherlands, these will be available for shipping to Great Britain by the 8th September, but 6 transports are needed.

It is now clear that the Jacobites are laying siege to Carlisle, word has not been heard from thus city since late August, a transport ship from Campbeltown carrying artillery to stiffen the city’s defenses has taken the precaution not to land it’s cargo lest it falls into rebel hands, the vessel lies off Whitehaven where rebel troops are clearly visible.

Wade has initiated a policy of striking at the rebel homelands, he has led a small force of Lee’s 55th Foot to Mull to raise the lands of Sir Hector MacLean the first to join the rebel standard when the Prince landed.

The weather in Scotland takes a turn for the cooler, it is raining most days.


Intelligence

The French continue assembling a fleet at Boulogne, a number of warships and additional transports are assembling there, however it appears that there are no troops massing here. Militia is being raised in Calais.

Tobias Woodstock a gentleman from Dublin has presented himself to you at Newcastle. He states that he has traveled by way of Carlisle to offer his services to the King. He maintains that he is well versed in the ways of Spies and Agents and would do your bidding as you please – by way of proving his noble intent he informs you that the Price and his army is currently at Carlisle where they number some 1500 Horse and 3000 Foot but no artillery that he could see.

Agents of the King continue to report from across the country, there are a number of concerns to the government.

In Sussex and Kent groups calling themselves the ‘Southern Rebels’ have been spoken of. In all likelihood these rebels are one and the same as the robber and smuggling bands that frequent the Weald area. These gangs have smuggling connections with businessmen in the French ports.

Other new concerns are heard from Ireland where there is some interest in the present troubles. Agents speak of disaffection amongst the Irish regiments and calls from radicals to volunteer for service with the prince.

Wednesday, 5 June 2013

The Jacobite Papers - 1st September 1745

Current Situation

Winning the Battle of Rannoch has caused some serious problems in your army, a number of highlanders appear to have taken leave of absence whilst some 300 former government troops have joined the ranks of your forces, overall it evens out.

What to do with the captured men was the next problem, in the end it is determined to move the captives to Blair Athol under the protection of the Robertson Regiment, this is their home territory and they will be able to raise a second battalion whilst guarding the prisoners.

Wagons were rounded up to transport arms and artillery and other booty from the battlefield - 100 horses were recovered and volunteers were obtained who enabled the re-fitting of Pitslgo’s horse to their original numbers.

The McDonald Division under young Donald McDonald, a mere boy of 23 years, marches south to join the Prince in Carlise, with him is taken the captured artillery train which slows his progress mightily, not reaching the English city until 1st September.

Cromarty then leads the rest of his army back to Edinburgh, with a view to secure the Scottish capital. On reaching the city they surprise the garrison that in the absence of the Prince’s forces had sallied forth and done great injury to the prince’s supporters. In the race for the Castle gate the Farquharson regiment were literally within a dozen strides of the gate before it was closed.

The Prince has surrounded Carlisle and laid siege to the city which as yet has not capitulated, with the arrival of additional guns from Rannoch then the garrison could not be expected to last long. There are reports of government transports laying off the shore at Whitehaven, not putting into port, their cargo is unknown.

Recruiting & Spies etc
Agents tell you that Wade has moved a force by ship to the Western Isles with a view to sack the McDonald homelands. Spies on the continent report large numbers of English and Dutch troops being prepared for sailings to Britain.

It is thought that the Hanoverian King may even return to England to rally his defeated armies.

Whig militias are being raised in Glasgow, Paisley and Lanark however they have very few weapons at hand. The Campbells are beginning to stir, it is likely that they would be able to field a number of militia battalions.

Dudley Bradshaw a gentleman from Dublin by way of London has presented himself to you in Carlisle. He states that he is prepared to offer his services to the Prince. He maintains that he is versed in the ways of Spies and Agents and would do your bidding as you please. He brings news that Huske has landed at Newcastle with 3,000 men

In France the latest news is mixed, there is disappointment in the loss at Elgin but this will be countered by the Rannoch triumph as soon as this is heard about. They have provided a battalion of marines plus siege guns in Flanders and the services of the excellent Colonel Grant an expert in siege warfare and engineering.